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    5 Components of Reading Instruction

    Scientifically based reading research has identified five essential components of 
    effective reading instruction. Explicit and systematic instruction must be provided in 
    these five areas: 
    1.   Phonemic AwarenessThe ability to hear, identify and manipulate the 
    individual sounds –phonemes – in spoken words. Phonemic awareness is the 
    understanding that the sounds of spoken language work together to make 
    2.   PhonicsThe understanding that there is a predictable relationship between 
    phonemes – the sounds of spoken language – and graphemes – the letters 
    and spellings that represent those sounds in written language. Readers use 
    these relationships to recognize familiar words accurately and automatically 
    and to decode unfamiliar words. 
    3.  Vocabulary Development Development of stored information about the 
    meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. There are 
    four types of vocabulary:  
    •  Listening vocabulary – the words needed to understand what is heard 
    •  Speaking vocabulary – the words used when speaking 
    •  Reading vocabulary – the words needed to understand what is read 
    •  Writing vocabulary – the words used in writing 
    4.   Reading fluency, including oral reading skills – Fluency is the ability to read 
    text accurately and quickly. It provides a bridge between word recognition 
    and comprehension. Fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the 
    same time. 
    5.   Reading comprehension strategies – Strategies for understanding, 
    remembering, and communicating with others about what has been read. 
    Comprehension strategies are sets of steps that are purposeful, active readers 
    use to make sense of text.
    ** For more information on the components of reading log onto: 


Last Modified on August 21, 2012