OF THE FREE WORLD
1945 – 1991
US vs.Soviet Union(Super
Cold War- a state of tension between nations without actual fighting - between the US andSoviet Union1945 – 1990.
Communism- an economic system where the government owns the means of production.
Capitalism(FREE-ENTERPRISE SYSTEM) - citizens can own their own businesses with hope of making a profit
United Nations- international peacekeeping organization developed after WWII. Member nations agreed to bring disputes to the UN for peaceful settlement.
Satellite States- nations controlled by the Soviet Union during the Cold War as a buffer to a unitedGermany. Ex:Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, andAlbania.Truman Doctrine- $400 million in military aid was given toTurkey and Greece so they would not be taken over by communist rebels.
Containment- stop communism from spreading; contain communism to the areas where it exists. US foreign policy started by President Truman.
NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization. US formed a military alliance with friendly nations – mostly inWestern
Europe-member nations pledged to defend one another if they were attacked.
Warsaw Pact - a military alliance of eastern European nations formed by theSoviet Unionin 1955Domino Theory-President Eisenhower’s belief that once one country falls to communism the surrounding
nations would also fall.Superpower– a country with enough military, political, and economic power to influence other countries.SALT Treaty- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. US &USSRsigned a treaty limiting the number of nuclear warheads & missiles they built.
Vietcong-a group of communist guerillas (fighters who use hit-and-run tactics) that supported the North but live in the South
GulfofTonkin Resolution -the U.S.would take all measures necessary to stop Soviet aggression inNorth Vietnam.
ParisPeace Accords - agreement made byNorth Vietnam, South Vietnam, and theUntiedStates to end the Vietnam War.
War Powers Act-required the President to get approval from Congress before sending troops to an armed struggle.
Joseph Stalin- Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.
Harry S. Truman- President from 1945-1953, Democratic Party, made decision to drop the atom
bomb in WWII; enacted the Berlin Airlift and the Truman Doctrine.
Nikita Khrushchev- 1953 became the leader of theUSSRwhen Stalin died. He was responsible for building the Berlin Wall and was leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Dwight D. Eisenhower– President from 1953-1961, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, & launched the Space Race.
John F. Kennedy- President from1961 until his assassination in 1963. Events during his administration
include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall & the Space Race.
Richard Nixon– President from 1969-1974, hefollowed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China.
Mikhail Gorbachev- leader of theSoviet Unionfrom 1985 -1991. He believed major steps were
needed to improve the economy and worked with President Reagan to improve relations with theUS.
Ronald Reagan– President from 1981-1989, hissecond term was marked by the ending of the Cold War. He publicly portrayed theUSSR as an "evil empire" and supported anti-Communist movements worldwide